Capital Ships are a class of large ships that serve various functions like exploration, transportation, military and tourism.
There are currently two types of capital ships: the Farragut Battle Cruiser and the Majestic Class Interdictor. They're heavily armed and can launch several fighter squadrons. These ships are piloted by NPCs. Frontier said in their roadmap that they intend to add the "availability of giant ‘executive control’ ships to players" in a future update.
Farragut Battle Cruiser Edit
The Farragut Battle Cruiser is the mainstay capital ship of the Federation. Heavily armed with classified weaponry, the Farragut stretches over two kilometers long. The backbone of the Federal Navy, it also forms the central core of the Federation Intervention fleet.
Majestic Class Interdictor EditThe Majestic Class Interdictor is a capital ship type of the Empire. It has an array of weaponry including Modular Interceptor Guns and Railguns. It's 1.904 kilometers long.
Fleet Carrier Edit
The Fleet Carrier is a very large, dockable vessel that will act as a mobile base of operations for Squadrons. This will be the first player owned capital ship type. It's coming as part of the Q4 2018 update of Elite Dangerous: Beyond.
Player Owned Capital Ships Edit
In The Commanders Livestream, a viewer asked "any chance of playing capital ships in the future?", David Braben answered: "it's on the list, but a long way down it, because there's a lot of gameplay to make it work. The issue is what we call the difference between direct control and executive control. Where rather than flying by the seat of your pants you're giving orders to a giant ship. Because you can't expect it to change course very rapidly and that sort of thing. So it's certainly a long-term possibility, but it's long-term."
Mega Ships Edit
From v2.3, The Commanders, there are several types of Megaships, around the Galaxy. These are capital ships of a different class, often station-sized.